How many sovereign wealth funds are there and how much do they invest offshore
As of 2021, there are estimated to be over 100 sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) worldwide, although the exact number can be difficult to determine due to the lack of transparency in some cases.
The total amount invested by sovereign wealth funds is also difficult to determine precisely, as their investments can fluctuate over time and be spread across a wide range of asset classes. However, as of 2021, the estimated total assets under management (AUM) of sovereign wealth funds are around $9 trillion USD.
It’s worth noting that the largest sovereign wealth funds are typically those associated with countries that have significant natural resource revenues, such as Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global, Saudi Arabia’s Public Investment Fund, and the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority. These funds can have AUM in the hundreds of billions or even trillions of dollars. However, there are also many smaller sovereign wealth funds associated with other countries, which may have more modest AUM.
Most popular asset classes for sovereign wealth funds
Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) invest in a variety of asset classes, depending on their objectives, risk tolerance, and investment strategy. However, some of the most popular asset classes for sovereign wealth funds include:
- Public Equities: Sovereign wealth funds often invest a significant portion of their portfolios in publicly traded equities, including large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap companies in both domestic and international markets.
- Fixed Income Securities: Many sovereign wealth funds invest in fixed income securities, such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and other debt instruments. These investments are often seen as a way to generate income while preserving capital.
- Alternative Investments: Sovereign wealth funds also invest in a variety of alternative asset classes, such as real estate, private equity, infrastructure, and hedge funds. These investments can provide diversification and potentially higher returns than more traditional asset classes.
- Commodities: Some sovereign wealth funds invest in commodities, such as gold, oil, and other natural resources. These investments can provide a hedge against inflation and other economic uncertainties.
It’s worth noting that the specific asset classes favored by sovereign wealth funds can vary depending on their individual investment objectives, risk tolerance, and investment horizon. Some sovereign wealth funds may focus more heavily on specific asset classes, while others may have more diversified portfolios that span a range of different investment categories.
Which SWFs invest in Gold and how much do they own
Several sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) invest in gold as a way to diversify their portfolios and hedge against inflation and economic uncertainty. However, the specific amount of gold owned by each fund can be difficult to determine, as many SWFs do not disclose their holdings in detail. Here are a few examples of SWFs that are known to have invested in gold:
- The State Oil Fund of Azerbaijan (SOFAZ): SOFAZ reportedly began investing in gold in 2012 as a way to diversify its portfolio. As of 2021, the fund’s gold holdings were estimated to be around 30 tons.
- The National Bank of Kazakhstan: The National Bank of Kazakhstan reportedly holds around 34 tons of gold in its reserves, which includes holdings by its sovereign wealth fund, the Samruk-Kazyna National Welfare Fund.
- The Central Bank of Russia: While not technically a sovereign wealth fund, the Central Bank of Russia holds a significant amount of gold in its reserves. As of March 2021, the bank’s gold reserves were estimated to be around 2,295 tons.
- The Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (ADIA): ADIA is one of the largest sovereign wealth funds in the world, with an estimated $700 billion in assets under management. While the fund does not disclose its gold holdings, it is believed to have invested in the precious metal as part of its diversification strategy.
It’s worth noting that the total amount of gold owned by sovereign wealth funds is relatively small compared to their overall assets under management. As of 2021, the total amount of gold owned by all sovereign wealth funds combined is estimated to be around 3,500 tons, which represents less than 1% of the total global gold supply.
Which SWFs invest in Cryptocurrency and how much do they own
As of my knowledge cut off in September 2021, it was not widely reported that any sovereign wealth funds had significant investments in cryptocurrencies. However, it’s worth noting that the cryptocurrency market is highly volatile and subject to significant fluctuations in value, which can make it a challenging asset class for large institutional investors such as sovereign wealth funds.
That being said, some sovereign wealth funds may be exploring or considering investments in cryptocurrencies as part of their diversification strategy or in response to changing market conditions. In recent years, several countries have launched their own digital currencies or explored the possibility of doing so, which could potentially create investment opportunities for sovereign wealth funds in the future.
It’s important to note that sovereign wealth funds are often highly secretive about their investment activities, and may not disclose their holdings or investment strategies in detail. As such, it can be challenging to determine with certainty which funds, if any, have invested in cryptocurrencies, or how much they may own.
Is there an index of SWFs?
Yes, there are several indices that track the performance of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) and provide insight into the broader trends and movements within the SWF industry. Here are a few examples:
- Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute’s SWF Index: The Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute (SWFI) publishes an SWF Index that tracks the performance of over 30 of the largest sovereign wealth funds in the world. The index is weighted by assets under management and provides data on both short-term and long-term returns, as well as asset allocation and investment strategies.
- MSCI Sovereign Wealth Fund Index: MSCI Inc., a leading provider of investment decision support tools and services, offers a Sovereign Wealth Fund Index that measures the performance of SWFs globally. The index includes both oil and non-oil based SWFs and is designed to provide investors with a benchmark for the SWF industry.
- EDHEC Sovereign Wealth Fund Index: EDHEC Risk Institute, an academic research center in finance, publishes an index that tracks the performance of SWFs globally. The index is based on a proprietary methodology that takes into account the unique characteristics of SWFs, such as their long-term investment horizons, their large size, and their low liquidity needs.
These indices can be useful tools for investors and researchers who are interested in tracking the performance of SWFs and understanding their investment strategies and trends. However, it’s important to note that not all sovereign wealth funds are included in these indices, and the methodology used to construct them can vary significantly, which can impact the results.
Can individual investors invest in Sovereign Wealth Funds
In general, individual investors are not able to invest directly in sovereign wealth funds (SWFs), as these funds are typically owned and operated by governments and are not open to public investment.
However, some sovereign wealth funds may indirectly invest in publicly traded companies or other assets that individual investors can access through public markets. For example, if a sovereign wealth fund invests in a publicly traded company, individual investors can purchase shares of that company on a stock exchange.
In addition, some financial institutions offer products that provide exposure to sovereign wealth funds or other institutional investors. For example, some mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and hedge funds may invest in assets that are also held by sovereign wealth funds. However, it’s important to note that these products may not provide direct exposure to sovereign wealth funds themselves and may involve additional risks and costs.
It’s worth noting that sovereign wealth funds are often highly secretive about their investment activities and may not disclose their holdings or investment strategies in detail. As such, it can be challenging for individual investors to gain insight into the specific investments made by these funds or to determine which financial products may provide exposure to them.